Rashes are extremely common in babies. During the first four weeks of their life they suffer various dermatologic skin problems. A lot of these conditions last only a short time and will go away. Most of them are transient. However, serious infectious, congenital skin diseases and sometimes malign tumors should be taken into consideration. Neonatal skin conditions are common. Infants with unusual presentations or signs of systemic illness should be evaluated for Candida, viral, and bacterial infections. Milia and miliaria result from immaturity of skin structures. Almost all of these skin rashes are a serious concern for parents and in such situation they should visit to the physician.
A study concluded that more than 95% of newborns have cutaneous findings, which often are distressing to parents. Clinicians need to recognize these skin conditions and differentiate them from more serious conditions, such as infectious pustular eruptions from bacterial, viral, and fungal causes, and inflammatory conditions, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Notable bacterial pustular eruptions are bullous impetigo and congenital syphilis. Viral pustular dermatoses include neonatal herpes simplex virus infection and varicella zoster virus infection, which consists of congenital varicella syndrome, perinatal varicella, and infantile zoster. Fungal pustular eruptions include congenital and neonatal candidiasis. Diaper dermatitis encompasses a broad clinical diagnosis, including allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, infections, psoriasis, and other dermatologic conditions. Critical components of baby skin care are immersion bathing, umbilical cord care, and use of emollients to augment skin barrier function.